COMMAND AREA DEVELOPMENT CHAMBAL, KOTA     

 

INTRODUCTION

 

            After independence the Government of India launched a country wide programme of multipurpose river valley projects to make use of the unharnessed water resources in the country. The Chambal irrigation project is one of the multipurpose river valley projects taken during the first five year plan of the country. It was estimated that about 34 lac acre feet water of Chambal was flowing annually without any use for irrigation and power purposes and also washing away fertile soil through flooding.

           

            To make use of this unharnessed water of Chambal, the Government of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan started a joint integrated scheme of three dams and a reservoir and the net work of canals in 1953 for irrigation. The purpose of the scheme was to generate hydro-electric power and to supply water for irrigation. The project construction began in the year 1953 and water for irrigation by canals was made available in 1960, although the construction of stage-III was completed in 1971. The main features of the system are :-

 

Stage-I

 

A) Gandhi Sagar Dam :-

 

            The river bed has a drop of 625 m. from its origin at Mhow upto Kota city where it enters into the plains. Out of this, nearly 122 m. drop occurs in the gorge portion i.e. between Chaurasigarh and Kota city. The first dam Gandhi Sagar is located near Chaurasigarh. It is a 64 m. high masonary gravity dam with reservoir having a storage capacity of 7750 MCM (6.28 MAF) corresponding to F.R.L. at 400 m.

 

            The storage available at Gandhi Sagar has been planned to irrigate 4.45 Lac hectare (1.1 million acres) annually. The head of 47 m. helps in running five generator four of 23 MW and one of 27 KW capacity.

 

B) Kota Barrage :-

 

            In the cascade development of Chambal Valley this structure is located near Kota city. Its main function is to raise the water level for feeding the canals constructed on right and left banks of the river.

            This is an earthen dam with masonary structure on left bank. The maximum hight of barrage is 37.34 m. with F.R.L. 260.30 m.

(854.00 Ft.)

 

            The Kota Barrage was completed in Nov. 1960.

 

Stage -II:

 

Rana Pratap Sagar Dam :-

 

            This is a 54 m. high masonary dam at Rawat Bhata in Chittorgarh District of Rajasthan situated about 56 Kms. down stream of Gandhi Sagar and 48 Kms. upstream of Kota Barrage. The live storage capacity of this reservoir is 1568 MCM (1.27 MAF) while the gross storage is 2900 MCM (2.35 MAF) corresponding to F.R.L. 353 m. This storage supplements the irrigation water available from Gandhi Sagar, thus raising the total irrigation potential from 445000 hectares to 567000 hect.

 

            The Rana Pratap Sagar power Station is located on the left bank at the toe of the dam. The power system consists of four turbo generators of 43 MW each, 1280 Kms. of H.T. lines, 10 new grid Sub stations and augmentation of 3 substations in Rajasthan.

 

Stage -III :

 

Jawahar Sagar Dam :-

 

            Jawahar Sagar Dam is a 45 m. high cement concrete gravity dam is located at a distance of 29 Kms. upstream of Kota Barrage to utilise the fall in the river bed for power generation. Three units each of 33 MW capacity have been installed at this power station.

 

Canal System

 

            There are two main canals taking off from the Kota Barrage. The Right Main Canal (RMC) is the 372 Kms. long (124 Km. in Rajasthan and the rest in Madhya Pradesh) while the Left Main Canal (LMC) is 2.74 Km. Two branches, Bundi branch canal and Kapren Branch canal take off from LMC. The water carrying capacity of the RMC is 6656 cusecs. Left main canal is designed to carry water at the rate of 1500 cusecs.

 

            Details of canal system & Drainage system are as under :-

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S.         Canal Systems                       Length Km.     Designed         Culturable

No.                                                       head dis-         command

                                                            charge in         area CCA

                                                            cubic ft.           in hect.

                                                            per second      areas

                                                            (cusecs)

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1                      2                                      3                     4                    5

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1.         Right Main Canal         Main Canal                  6656                1,27,000

            system in Rajas-         124 Km. bra-               cusecs                         ha. for

            than (lies in Kota         nches and                   for MP               Rajasthan.

            & Baran districts         distribution                   & Raj.             

            of Rajasthan)              system 1376               State

                           Km.

 

2.         Left Main Canal           Main Canal                  1500                1,02,000

            system (lies in             2.59 Km. bra-              cusecs                          hac.

            Kota & Bundi Distt.)    nches and

                                                distribution

                                                system 1248

                                                Km.

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Total In Rajasthan                   2750.74 Km.               8156 cusecs     2,29,000                                                                                                                                              hac.

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Drainage System                                                                                   1,67,000Hact.

           

 

General :-

 

            The Command Area of Chambal is located in Kota, Bundi and Baran districts of Rajasthan and is centered at Kota city of Kota. The gross command area in Rajasthan is about 4,85,000 hectares and the net command area is 2.29 lac hectares. The non-irrigable area consists of ravines, gullies and a few high spots. The Chambal Command Area in Rajasthan is spread over six Panchayat Samities of Kota, Bundi and Baran districts. These Panchayat Samities are Ladpura, Sultanpur, Itawa in Kota district and Keshoraipatan and Talera in Bundi district and Anta in Baran district. The total geographical area of the six Panchayat Samities is about 42% of the total Kota, Bundi & Baran districts. The rural population of these Panchayat Samities is 9.62 lacs as per the 2001 census, which is nearly 40.71% of the total population of Kota, Bundi and Baran districts. The population of the scheduled castes is about 20.26 % and scheduled tribe is about 21.19 % of the rural population of the Command Area.

 

Topography :-

           

            It lies at an altitude between 170 M. to 260 M. above the M.S.L. (Mean sea level) along the right and left bank of the Chambal river. The irrigable area of the project is an elongated basin in the former alluvial plain of Chambal.

 

            The Command  has  an average land slope of about 0.08%. It is  drained by 4 major  rivers viz Mej, Kalisindh, Parwan and Parvati which have cut deep  into the alluvium  exposing bed-rocks at some places. The rivers  are  free flowing and have adequate conveyance channels. These  channels and the net work    of meandering gullies (Nallahs) which are tributaries to them form the primary drainage system of the area. The nallahs, in the pre-irrigation period remained dry for the greater part of the year and drained the surface water with only occasional flooding during the rainy season.

 

Climate :-

 

            The project has got a sub-tropical climate with moderate to hot temperature, ranges between 7 Degree C to 45 Degree C and relative humidity drops to about 20 % during March, April and May. July-August is most humid period averaging 70% to 80% humidity. The Kharif-wet season is spread over from July to September. Rabi winter season is between the month of October to February while the hot season or pre-monsoon season is occurring from April to May. The monsoon usually starts from second half of the June but heavy rainfall occurs during July - August and early September. The average rainfall of the area is 850 mm.

 

Soils of Chambal Command Area :-

 

            The soils of Chambal Command Area are alluvial in nature and fairly deep in valley portions. However, the depth varies from place to place depending upon the extent of weathering, natural slope, drainage, extent of erosion and exposure of rock out crops. In total tentatively 9 soils series have been identified out of which mostly six exist in Kota, district while three in district Bundi. The one series namely Bundi series is common in both the districts. The series of Kota district through also met in Bundi but their area is comparatively less. These series are as under :-

 

1. Kota & Baran Series :-

 

            The soils under this series occurs on flat to gently sloping lands. The slope generally ranges from 0 to 2%. These are dominantly fine texured varying from clay-loam to clavey. But mostly clay loam. These are non calcareous to slightly calcareous.

 

2. Kota Variant Series :-

 

            These soils are similar to Kota but differ with it in respect of calcium carbonate contents, which is quite high on surface and below, and hence needs special management practices to counter act effects of high lime contents.

 

3. Chambal Series :-

 

            Chambal series soils are high in clay contents as compared to Kota and Kota/Baran variant series. These are gravish to dark gravish in colour. The clay content is as high as 48 to 51 % in lower depths, which is quite compacted, thereby exhibiting toughness within root zone depth.

 

Chambal variant series :-

 

            Chambal variant series soils in general are similar to Chambal series except these are mostly free from lime contents.

 

Sultanpur Series :-

 

            These soils also falls in the category of line texured soils and are dominantly silty-clay-loam. These are yellowish to yellowish brown in colour and high to very high in lime contents, which varies from 10 to 40% or more. The lime nodules are inter-mixed throughout the soil profile.

 

Bundi Series :-

 

            The soils of this series are sandy-clay-loam to sandy-clay. The colour ranges from dark yellowish brown to very dark brown. These soils are deep to very deep and generally non-calcarious (in some pockets).

 

Balapur Series :-

 

            The soils under this series are sandy-clay-loam to clay loam. The colour ranges from dak reddish brown to very dark reddish brown. These soils are generally deep but close to hillocks or foothills.

 

 

Guda Series :-

 

            Guda Series falls under medium texured soils and texure ranges from sandy-loam to fine sandy-loam through out the soil profile. These are deep,calcarious and highly drained soils and are found near the foothills and natural nallas and rivers.

 

Alod Series :-

 

            The soils of this series are loam to silty-loam, pale brown to dark yellowish, deep to very deep non-calcarious to slightly calcarious. These soils are also slowly to moderately slow permeable, slightly to moderately erodible and require antierosion measures as given under Guda series.

 

 

CONSTITUTION OF AUTHORITY :-

 

            With a view to have a better coordination amongst the various functionaries of the project, Government of Rajasthan constituted a Command Area Authority under the Chairmanship of Area Development Commissioner,CAD,Chambal, Kota. A copy of the orders issued regarding constitution of Command Area Authority for Chambal Project and its functions and delegation of powers of Area Development Commissioner is annexed at Annexure-I.

 

 

OBJECTIVES :-

 

            The main objective of the CAD programme are summarised as under :-

 

I.          The efficient utilisation of water implying-

            i)          Minimisation of water losses through lining of canals, increasing of canal capacity, installation of control structures, the teaching of improved techniques for more efficient water use etc.

            ii)         The maximisation of gains from water use through on Farm Development works, the construction of an improved and wider road network, improved agricultural techniques brought about by adaptive research and agriculture extension etc.

 

II.                      The equitable distribution of water through Warabandi and greater control over canal system as a whole.